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Mon Jan 06 12:37:42 UTC 2020

The Evolution of Wireless Cellular Technology


Over the past few decades, after the launch of the first generation mobile network in the early 1980s, the modern wireless communication system has gone through several evolutionary phases. Mobile connectivity technologies progressed quickly to serve more users due to the enormous demand for more connections worldwide. This article discusses about all the wireless communication technology right from its beginning past and gives an overview of the past and present wireless technology.


1G Wireless Technology

Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company (NTT) launched the first wave of mobile networks in Tokyo in 1979. It gained popularity in the US, Finland, UK, and Europe in the early 1980s. This machine used analog signals, and due to technical limitations, it had several drawbacks.

2G Wireless Technology

In Finland in 1991, the 2G network started to allow cell phones to migrate into the digital world. 2G allowed encryption of calls and email, as well as SMS, image messaging, and MMS. The maximum speed was roughly 50kbps for 2G.

The mobile communication system's second generation introduced a new modern wireless transmission technology, also known as the Global Mobile Communication System (GSM). GSM technology later became the basic standard for wireless standards for further development. This standard has been able to support a data rate of up to 14.4 to 64kbps (maximum) that is adequate for SMS and email services.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was introduced and implemented in the mid-1990s, developed by Qualcomm. CDMA has more spectral efficiency, number of users, and data rate features than GSM.

3G Wireless Technology

In 1998, the 3G network with more data, video calling, and mobile internet started to develop. What we can now consider being a "slow" network in many large municipalities was at the pinnacle of wireless technology until 4G arrived. 3G networks cross 2mbps on-moving infrastructure and 384kbps on moving vehicle equipment.

Several key technological enhancements are applied to the network in order to increase the data rate of current 3G networks. HSDPA?High-speed Downlink Packet Access and HSUPA?High-speed Uplink Packet Access developed and deployed to 3 G networks. Network 3.5 G will accommodate a data rate of up to 2mbps. 3.75 Network is an improved HSPA+ High Speed Packet Access and 3G network version. This system would eventually evolve into a more efficient LTE (Long Term Evolution) 3.9 G network.

4G Wireless Technology

4G cellular network standard was released at the end of the 2000s and is 500 times faster than 3G. It was able to support mobile Television, video conferencing, and much more in high-definition. When a device runs, like walking with your phone or in a vehicle, the top speed may be 10s of Mbps, and when the device is stationary, it may be 100s of Mbps. The bandwidth field of 20MHz has a maximum capacity of 400Mbps. Nonetheless, as users share accessible sector resources, among others, users typically have observed speed experiences in 10s -100s of Mbps.

4 G systems are upgraded versions of IEEE-developed 3 G networks, offer higher data rates, and are capable of handling more sophisticated multimedia services. It is compatible with the previous version, making it easier to implement and update advanced LTE and LTE networks.

With the LTE system, simultaneous voice and data transmission are possible, which significantly improves the data rate. All services can be transmitted via IP packets, including voice services. For multiplying uplink/downlink power, complex modulation schemes and carrier aggregation are used.

5G Wireless Technology

5G will use advanced technology to provide consumers with ultra-fast internet and multimedia experience. In the future, existing advanced LTE networks will become supercharged 5G networks. 5G technology will use millimeter waves and an unlicensed spectrum to transmit data and achieve a higher data rate.

Applications such as smart homes and buildings, smart cities, 3D imagery, cloud work and play, remote medical services, virtual and augmented reality, and vast machine-to-machine communications are expected to boost the growth of 5G technology.

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